Financial Statements

Yearly and quarterly written public records that reveal a corporation’s financial activities and business dealings.

FRCP Rule 23(a)

Prerequisite procedure rules for settlement class certification where lead counsel proves (i) numerosity; (ii) commonality; (iii) typicality; and (iv) adequacy in class action lawsuits.


Absent class members who petition the court to become named plaintiffs in lawsuits.

Lead Plaintiff(s)

The person or people in the class action named as the plaintiff(s) who brought the complaint and sought class certification.


Court–approved attorney fee and expense reimbursements made by class administrators to lead counsel.

Misleading Statements

Intentionally or deliberately disclosing false or misleading information on financial statements that often results in damages to investors, creditors, and company employees.


Evidence that shows the courts the settlement class is so numerous it would be impracticable for the courts to hear each lawsuit separately.


A class member who challenges all or part of a proposed class action settlement.