Absent Class Member

Class members not named in the class action complaint who may join the lawsuit during litigation or after settlement.


A legal term describing whether lead counsel and lead plaintiffs possess the means to represent the settlement class’ interests properly.

Automated Opt-Outs

An automated and interactive method or means for consumers to withdraw their consent to telemarketer calling or robocalling immediately.

Automatic Dialing Systems (Robocalls)

An automated pre-recorded voice phone message, fax or text message delivered by a computer to a consumer’s landline, cell phone or fax machine.

Calls to Cellular Lines

Telemarketers, vendors and bill collectors may not send automated calls, pre-recorded messages or text messages to any business or personal cellular telephone unless the person previously gives the party permission to call; consumers may further revoke consent by notifying parties to stop communicating with their cellular devices.

Calls to Residential Lines

Telemarketers and salespeople may not send pre-recorded business solicitations or messages to residential telephone lines without first building a "business relationship" with consumers; sellers establish these links by having conducted business with the person within the last eighteen months or by having made consented sales inquiries within the last three months.


A judicial hearing where the courts scrutinize lawsuits to find whether controversies can proceed as class actions.

Certification Notice

A court ordered document that informs class members of their potential eligibility to join class action proceedings and advises on the rights and responsibilities of the settlement class.